My brothers: Indeed in this blessed month, Allah gave the Muslims victory in the battle of Badr. This day is called the Day of Furqan (criterion) because Allah (subhanahu wa taala) separated on this day between the Truth and Falsehood, with the victory of his Messenger and the believers. This was in Ramadhan in the second year Hijri. The reason for this battle was because the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) heard that Abu Sufyan was heading from Sham to Makkah with a caravan belonging to Quraysh. So he told his companions to leave so that they may take the caravan. This is because Quraysh fought the Messenger (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) and his companions and they did not have a treaty between them, and they forced them from their land and their wealth, and they stood against their dawah of truth. So the Muslims had the right to take the caravan. So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) left with 300 and some companions, ten of them on horses, 70 of them on camels, 70 of them were from the Muhajereen, and the rest were from the Ansar. They were intending to take the caravan, and they weren’t expecting to fight a battle. This is so that Allah could carry out an order that was going to happen, and to do what he wills. Abu Sufyan found out that the Muslims were going to attach so he sent someone to Quraysh to prepare to defend the caravan. Abu Sufyan took a different route and went towards the sea, so he was safe.
As for Qurayash, when the message reached them they prepared for war with 1000 men, 100 horses, and 700 camels, and singers singing about the destruction of the Muslims, “insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of Allah. For Allah compasseth round about all that they do.” When Abu Sufyan learned about Quraysh leaving he told them that he was safe and that he didn’t need them. Upon hearing this message Abu Jahl said, “By Allah, we will not turn back until we get to Badr. There we will stay for three days, slaughter animals, have a feast, drink wine and have the girls sing for us. All of Arabia shall hear of our march, our strength and shall afterwards respect us.”
As for the Messenger (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam), when he heard of the advancement of Quraysh, he gathered the Sahaba with him and sought counsel from them. He (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) said, “Indeed Allah has promised me either the caravan or the victory.” So Al Maqdad bin Al Aswad who was one of the Muhajereen said, “Oh messenger of Allah, do what Allah (subhanahu wa taala) has ordered, for by Allah we wont say what the children of Israel said to Musa, “Go you and your Lord and fight, indeed we will stay here.” But we fight on your right and your left, from in front of you, and from behind you.” Said bin Muadh, who was from the ansar and the leader of the Aus said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, it may be that you fear we may not see it from our agreement to protect you outside of Madinah, but I want to tell you on behalf of the Ansaar that you may lead us wherever you like, align with whom you may desire or break relations with whom you may think fit; you may take whatever you desire from our property and give us as much as you want; for, whatever you would take from our property would be dearer to us than what you would leave for us. We will follow whatever you command us to do. By Allah, if you go ahead until you reach Bark Ghimdan, we will accompany you, and by Allah if you march into the sea, we will also do it with you.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) smiled when he heard this from the Muhajereen and the Ansaar, and said, “Go and fight, for it is as though I can see us fighting the enemy.” So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) went with the army of the Merciful until they reached a low point containing the water of Badr. AlHobab bin Almundhir said, “Oh Messenger of Allah do you see this place we are in? Has Allah ordered you to choose this place for the battle? Or is it a war plan?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) replied that it was a war plan. Al-Hobab then said, “The choice of this place is inappropriate.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) asked him, “So, what do you suggest, Hobab?” He replied, “I think we should fill up all the wells but one, and place our army in front of it. Thus, we can drink while they cannot. Being thirsty, they are going to fight us for water, while we are going to fight for our cause.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) used his suggestion. So on that night, Allah sent down heavy rain for the kuffar. It was so heavy that it stopped them from advancing. This same rain was light for the Muslims, and made them pure, and made their feet steady. The Sahaba built for the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) a shelter on high ground with a view of the battlefield. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) came down and prepared the ranks. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) also made dua for Allah to give them the victory that they were promised. Allah (subhanahu wa taala) said, “When thy Lord inspired the angels, (saying) I am with you. So make those who believe stand firm. I will throw fear into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Then smite the necks and smite of them each finger. That is because they opposed Allah and His messenger. Whoso opposeth Allah and His messenger, (for him) lo! Allah is severe in punishment. That (is the award), so taste it, and (know) that for disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) then went back up to his encampment wit him was Abu Bakr and Said bin Muadh (radiallaahu `anhu) and he was making dua. He then said, “The hosts will all be routed and will turn and flee.” And he encouraged his companions to fight and said, “By the one whose hands lies the soul Muhammad, no one will be killed today while they are patient and with the right intention and not turning away, except that Allah will enter them into Jannah.” Upon hearing this, Umair bin alHemam stood up with dates in his hands and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, is Paradise the width of the heavens and earth?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) replied, “Yes.” He said, “(Bakhin! Bakhin!) Oh Messenger of Allah, there is nothing standing between me and entering paradise except to be killed by the enemy, if I lived until I eat these dates, then it will be a long life.” He then threw down his dates and fought until he was killed may Allah be pleased with him.
The Prophet(sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) took a handful of dirt and threw it towards the enemy. There was not one person of them that didn’t get dirt in their eyes, this was a sign from Allah (subhanahu wa taala). So the enemy was defeated, and they turned and ran, and the Muslims chased them away. They killed 70 of them and captured 70. The number of Muslims that died were 24. Of the enemy that was killed were, Abu Jahl, Shaibah bin Rabiah, and his brother Utba, and his son Waleed. It is narrated in Muslim that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) kissed the ka’bah and made dua against those four.
As for the prisoner of war, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) sought counsel from his companions. Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) wanted to kill all of them because they were the leaders of disbelief. Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) wanted to sell them back and said it may be that Allah will guide them to Islam. So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) decided to take the blood money, some were freed for 4000 dirhams, other for 1000 dirhams, some of them were released after teaching some Muslim children how to read and write. Others were freed for some Muslims that Quraysh had, and some were killed by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam), and some were released for free because of a certain benefit.
This is the battle of Badr, a small group beating a larger group, “One fighting for the sake of Allah, and the other one disbelievers.” The smaller group won because it was established with the religion of Allah. So establish the religion of Muslims so that Allah will make us victorious against the enemies.